29-06-2020 Jun 29, 2020 11:48:52 GMT
Post by Admin on Jun 29, 2020 11:48:52 GMT
According to the WHO (World Health Organization), chronic bronchitis is the second most common, after bronchial asthma, nonspecific disease of the bronchopulmonary system in adults with which they go to health facilities.
The cause of chronic bronchitis can be:
- often recurring acute respiratory viral infections,
- bad habits, smoking is especially harmful,
- prolonged exposure to dry, hot or cold air,
- hypothermia of the whole organism,
- weakened immune system,
- prolonged contact of the bronchi with harmful chemicals (chlorine, dust, acids),
- genetic predisposition
- Industrial production pollutants (pollutants). A protracted inflammatory process in the bronchi occurs in people who work in industrial enterprises or live in contaminated areas.
The mechanism for triggering a chronic inflammatory process in the bronchial wall is quite complex. It is impossible to single out just one single factor that first implements it. The exception is cases of professional and chronic bronchitis of smokers.
The following conditions predispose to bronchitis:
- chronic pathology of the upper respiratory tract;
- chronic foci of infection in the body (for example, caries or chronic pyelonephritis);
- disturbed nasal breathing for various reasons (polyps in the nose, broken nasal septum);
- congestion in the lungs (for example, due to heart failure);
- chronic renal failure.
Depending on the causes of chronic bronchitis is:
- independent - develops without the influence of other inflammatory processes in the body;
- secondary - is a complication of other diseases, including pneumonia and tuberculosis, which can become not only the cause of the disease, but also its consequences.
The degree of involvement of bronchopulmonary tissue in the pathological process is distinguished
- obstructive, in which the lumen of the bronchi is narrowed,
- nonobstructive when the width of the bronchi does not change.
The nature of the sputum determines the type of disease.
- Catarrhal - mucous, without a purulent component in a clear discharge.
- Catarrhal-purulent and purulent bronchitis are determined by opaque inclusions in sputum.
There are obstructive and non-obstructive forms of the disease. Exacerbations may be frequent, rare, or there may be a latent course of the disease..
Voluntary vaccination and vaccination of risk groups remains the only effective preventive measure. There are currently three main types of flu vaccines. They differ in composition, containing either an inactivated virus, inactivated viral particles, or only hemagglutinin and neuraminidase antigens.
Another difference is reactogenicity and immunogenicity. The most commonly used is an inactivated vaccine of trivalent inactivated viral particles. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using the trivalent vaccine against only two subtypes of influenza A virus and one influenza B virus.
The subtype is selected annually by WHO, in particular for the northern and southern hemispheres.
Indications for use Augmentin
Bacterial infections caused by drug-sensitive microorganisms:
- Infections of the upper respiratory tract and ENT organs (for example, recurrent tonsillitis, sinusitis, otitis media), usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae *, Moraxella catarrhalis *, Streptococcus pyogenes;
- Infections of the lower respiratory tract: exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, lobar pneumonia and bronchopneumonia, usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae * and Moraxella catarrhalis * (except for tablets 250 mg / 125 mg);
- Urogenital tract infections: cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis, infections of the female genital organs, usually caused by species of the Enterobacteriaceae family (mainly Escherichia coli *), Staphylococcus saprophyticus and species of the genus Enterococcus;
- Gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae * (except 250 mg / 125 mg tablets);
- Skin and soft tissue infections commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus *, Streptococcus pyogenes, and species of the genus Bacteroides *;
- Infections of bones and joints: osteomyelitis, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus *, if necessary, long-term therapy;
- Odontogenic infections, for example, periodontitis, odontogenic, maxillary sinusitis, severe dental abscesses with spreading cellulite (for tablets 500 mg / 125 mg or 875 mg / 125 mg - buy augmentin);
- Other mixed infections (e.g., septic abortion, postpartum sepsis, intra-abdominal sepsis) as part of step therapy (for tablets 250 mg / 125 mg or 500 mg / 125 mg, or 875 mg / 125 mg).
* - individual representatives of the specified kind of microorganisms produce β-lactamase, which makes them insensitive to amoxicillin.
Infections caused by microorganisms sensitive to amoxicillin can be treated with Augmentin, since amoxicillin is one of its active ingredients. www.drugs.com/dosage/amoxicillin-clavulanate.html Augmentin is also indicated for the treatment of mixed infections caused by microorganisms sensitive to amoxicillin, as well as microorganisms producing β-lactamase, sensitive to the combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid.
The sensitivity of bacteria to the combination of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid varies depending on the region and over time. Where possible, local sensitivity data should be taken into account. If necessary, microbiological samples should be collected and analyzed for bacteriological sensitivity.